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Tree Descriptions

Evergreens

AMERICAN ARBORVITAE:  A Medium upright tree with a stout, buttressed trunk, native to Minnesota.  The tree is hardy in all zones but prefers a semi-moist site.  Other common names are White Cedar and Easterns Arborvitae.  The largest tree, located in North Dakota, is 45 feet tall with a canopy spread of 30 feet. 

WHITE PINE:  Pinus Strobus is a beautiful landscape pine widely used throughout much of North America. It is a truly magnificent tree attaining a height of 80 feet at maturity with a diameter of two to three feet. It carries long, soft bluish green needles with large brown cones. Cones are 4-8 inches in length and are rather thin and never have prickles. Widely used as a screen or windbreak.

 

BLACK HILLS SPRUCE:  Picea Glauca var. Densata is noted for its dark green foliage and conical form. It is a truly cold adapted tree and is very resistant to winter injury. Young Picea Glauca var. Densata are dense with stout to 1-1/4 inch needles.

 

COLORADO SPRUCE (Blue Spruce): Gorgeous, brilliant, stately. The Picea Pungens, is a pyramidal shaped evergreen with steel blue foliage. It prefers heavier soils, full sun, and clean cultivation. Picea Pungens will reach a height of six feet in eight years on a good site. The Picea Pungens is probably the most drought tolerant of all spruce. It is widely used in windbreaks or as an ornamental yard tree.

 

MEYER SPRUCE:  A very hearty native of China that has blue-green needles which are blunter than the Colorado Blue Spruce.  Its branches are also more flexible than those of the Colorado Blue Spruce.  Excellent needle retention.  Does will in a variety of soils

NORWAY PINE (Red Pine):  Large-sized, averaging 23 - 32 m (75 - 105 ft) high, evergreen conifer. Crown sparse, oval, over a straight, limbless trunk with little taper. Branches spreading with foliage tufted at the ends, resembling a fox tail. Branchlets medium textured, orange-brown in color with orange-brown buds. Trunk bark on young trees, red-brown or pink to gray, flaky. Eventually becoming plated. The plates have scaly surfaces.

PONDEROSA PINE:  Pinus Ponderosa will grow on most soils including very sandy soils and sites with very little topsoil. Once established, it is very drought resistant. With good care, Pinus Ponderosa will grow to a height of six feet in six years. It is widely used in windbreaks. The Pinus Ponderosa is the most frequently planted of the large, long-needled native pines.

Deciduous

  BUR OAK:  Burr Oak has several unique traits among large shade trees: fiddle-shaped foliage that is thick and large, bark on lower trunks that has thick, vertical flattened ridges with very deep furrows, large fringed acorns, and stout semi-corky twigs; in addition, the tree often stands alone in fields in the wild, displaying its bold texture of a massive trunk and huge spreading limbs from a distance, and being very drought tolerant due to its very deep taproot system.
 

AMERICAN LINDEN:  American basswood (usually called American linden in the horticultural business) is a stately and well formed deciduous tree with large heart-shaped leaves, a clean, straight trunk, and a broad, rounded crown. Basswood gets 60-80 ft (18.3-24 m) and occasionally over 100 ft.  Needs 18’ spacing.

RED MAPLE:  The swamp or red maple is a beautiful deciduous tree that is often planted as an ornamental. It ranges from medium to large in stature with notable variation in size and form depending on its site. While this tree may attain a height of 120 ft (36.6 m) and grow 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter under ideal conditions, it more commonly grows 40-50 ft (12.2-15.2 m) in height with diameters of 1.5-2.5 ft (3.8-6.4 cm). It has a narrow or rounded compact crown, and due to prolific sprouting, this tree often grows in clumps of stems from one stump. It also occurs as a single trunked tree and is most often grown this way in landscapes. There are a number of varieties offered on the market selected for characteristics like size, fall color

SUGAR MAPLE:  Sugar maple is a large tree, often 80' or more tall with a trunk up to 3 ft (0.9 m) in diameter. It has a large, dense and rounded crown and is one of the giants of the forest. Its leaves are opposite, palmately lobed and deciduous. Sugar maple has deeply furrowed gray bark which turns almost black when wet. The fruits of the sugar maple are called winged samaras and appear before the tree leafs out in early spring. You may have played with them as a schoolchild - we called them helicopters and dropped them from heights to watch them whirligig to the ground. There are dozens of named cultivars of sugar maple, selected for fall color, shape, leaf characteristics, size, hardiness or sugar production.

SILVER MAPLE:  This medium-sized maple attains heights of 60-80 ft (18.3-24.4 m) and diameters from 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m). It has deciduous, opposite, lobed leaves that are pale green above and silvery below. The leaves often turn yellow or red in the fall. As the tree matures its smooth, silvery bark breaks into long scaly plates.

NORWAY POPLAR:  Tall tree grows to 80’, 60’ in 20 years.  A large fast-growing narrow crowned tree. Grows well in moist soils.  Longest lived of all poplars.  Needs 16’ spacing.

Swamp White Oak:  Swamp White Oak is a medium sized, deciduous tree with a broad, rounded crown and a short trunk which typically grows at a moderate rate to a height of 50-60' (sometimes larger). Leaves are dark, shiny green above and silvery white beneath, with 5-10 rounded lobes or blunt teeth along the margins. Fall color is yellow, but sometimes reddish purple. Insignificant flowers in separate male and female catkins in spring. Fruits are acorns which mature in early fall. Indigenous to north, central and eastern Missouri in moist to swampy locations in bottomlands and lowlands, such as along streams and lakes, valleys, floodplains and at the edge of swamps. Also has surprisingly good drought resistance.

RED OAK:  A medium sized, deciduous tree with a rounded to broad-spreading, often irregular crown. Typically grows at a moderate-to-fast rate to a height of 50-75' (often larger in the wild). Dark, lustrous green leaves (grayish-white beneath) with 7-11, toothed lobes which are sharply pointed at the tips. Leaves turn brownish-red in autumn. Insignificant flowers in separate male and female catkins appear in spring. Fruits are acorns (with flat, saucer-shaped cups) which mature in early fall. An abundant crop of acorns may not occur before this tree reaches 40 years old. A Missouri native tree which typically occurs on northern- and eastern-facing wooded slopes throughout the State. Also commonly called northern red oak.

HACKBERRY:  This tree can attain very large proportions, but usually grows 40'-60' in height and 1'-1' in diameter. When grown in the open, it develops a short bole and a large rounded crown. It has simple, elm-like leaves and can be identified by its many corky warts and ridges of bark on the trunk. It produces fruit in the form of "-1" purple drupes.

BLACK WALNUT:  Juglans Nigra is a large, moderately growing, majestic tree. Prized for its wood veneer at maturity; used in fine cabinets, gunstocks, and furniture. Makes a wonderful shade tree, and when planted for a wood plantation, a long-term investment. Has moderate water requirements, and shows a moderate tolerance to salt and alkali soils. The Juglans Nigra will grow slower if exposed to droughty periods but is tolerant to drought.

 

 

 

Shrubs/Small Trees

AMERICAN PLUM: American Plum is a Missouri native, small, deciduous, single trunk tree or multi-stemmed shrub which occurs in rocky or sandy soils in woodlands, pastures, abandoned farms, streams and hedgerows throughout the State. As a tree, it typically grows to 15-25' tall with a broad, spreading crown. As a shrub, it suckers freely and can form large colonies. 2-5 flowered clusters (umbels) of 5-petaled white flowers (1" diameter) appear in March before the foliage. Flowers are unpleasantly aromatic. Flowers are followed by edible, round, red plums (1" diameter) with bright yellow pulp which ripen in early summer. This species is usually grown for ornamental value and not for fruit production, however. Although the plums can be eaten raw, the quality is somewhat poor. The fruits are perhaps better used for preserves and jellies. Toothed, oblong to ovate leaves are 3-4" long and turn yellow to red in autumn. Branches and twigs are an attractive dark reddish-brown and sometimes have thorny lateral branchlets.
MIDWEST CRABAPPLE:  The flowering crabapples are a group of durable and highly useful ornamental trees that are strikingly beautiful in bloom. The flowers, fruit and fall color are dependent on the species or cultivar. It is of utmost importance when selecting a crabapple that disease resistant (primarily to apple scab) and fruit quality (persistence, bright color and small size) be considered. The following species and cultivars are widely regarded as the best overall performing ornamental crabapples.

CRANBERRYBUSH:  Viburnum opulus is unusually beautiful with its soft maple-like leaves, producing white lacecap flowers mid-May to mid-June, followed by bunches of shiny bright red berries by August, which can be harvested in autumn.

 
REDOSIER DOGWOOD (Redtwig):  This redtwig dogwood cultivar is a rapid-growing, multi-stemmed, deciduous shrub which grows to a maximum size of 10-12' tall with a rounded, spreading (stoloniferous) habit. Denser and more compact than the species due in large part to its shorter internodes. The outstanding ornamental feature of this plant is its bright red winter stems which are particularly showy against a snowy backdrop. Tiny white flowers appear in flat-topped clusters (to 2.5" diameter) in late spring, with sparse, intermittent, additional flowering sometimes continuing into summer. Flowers give way to clusters of whitish (sometimes with a bluish tinge) drupes in late summer. Fruit is quite attractive to birds and is generally considered to have as much if not more ornamental interest than the flowers. Ovate to lanceolate, dark green leaves (2-4" long) turn an attractive reddish purple in autumn.
AMERICAN HAZELNUT: American Hazelnut, also called American filbert is a Missouri native, deciduous, rounded, multi-stemmed shrub which typically grows 8-16" tall and occurs statewide in dry or moist thickets, woodlands and wood margins, valleys, uplands and prairies. Monoeciuos (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). In spring, male flowers appear in a showy, 2-3" long, yellowish brown catkins and female flowers appear in small, reddish inconspicuous catkins. Female flowers give way to small egg-shaped, 1/2 " long, edible nuts (maturing July-August) which are encased in leafy, husk-like, ragged-edged bracts. Nuts are similar in flavor the the European filbert, and may be roasted and eaten or ground into flour, but are also commonly left for the squirrels and birds. Ovate, double-toothed, dark green leaves (3-6" long). Fall color is quite variable, ranging from attractive combinations of orange, rose, purplish red, yellow and green to undistinguished, dull yellowish green.

FLAME WILLOW:  Flaming Willow is grown for its ornamental qualities. Both in summer and in winter, the branches retain a bright orangey-red glow. The numerous branches of the willow are especially striking against dark green evergreens. The Flame willow grows in shrub form to 15 feet, and grows quickly when planed in wet, well drained soils.

 

COMMON LILAC:  This common lilac cultivar is an upright, deciduous shrub which grows 8-15' tall. Deep purple to wine red, sweetly fragrant, single flowers with white edges are arranged in dense, pyramidal, terminal clusters (panicles) which cover this shrub in late April to early May (St. Louis). Ovate to cordate, dark green leaves (to 5" long). Excellent fresh cut flower. Lilacs have been a garden favorite for years and often evoke nostalgic feelings of home and childhood. Walt Whitman lyrically extolled the lilac as "tall-growing with heart-shaped leaves of rich green, With many a pointed blossom rising delicate, with the perfume strong I love, With every leaf a miracle..." in his 1865 poem "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd".

 

AMUR MAPLE:  Small tree grows to 15’, 12’ in 10 years.  Somewhat drought-resistant, turns a brilliant orange crimson color in the fall.  Grows in most soils except in real wet sites. 25 Clusters of fragrant, yellowish-white flowers in spring; fruit red on certain cultivars; autumn color is a mix of yellow and red (varies from tree to tree) Needs 8’ spacing.

 

NANKING CHERRY:  Nanking Cherry is a broad, spreading shrub. It is grown primarily for its showy white flowers which cover the plant in early spring. The flowers are borne sessile along the stem. The 1/2" bright red fruit which ripen in early July are edible but a little tart for fresh eating. They make excellent jams and jellies. The pit is quite large in relationship to the fruit size. The fruit is relished by birds. Foliage is very attractive, dark green with fuzzy undersides; turning yellow in the fall. The plant works well as a mass planting or informal hedge. Nanking Cherry is native to northern China and is very winter hardy.

 

Tree Care Products

Tree Mats & 300' Rolls:

3'x 3’ Tree Mat or 3'x 300' Roll that kills existing weeds and stops new weeds before they start.  Lasts 4-8 years.

Rolls can be ordered in any length, a full roll is 300'.     
      

 

Nicollet SWCD | 501 7th St., PO Box 457 | Nicollet, MN 56074| 507-232-2550 |